ARTIHMETIC
 BOOK II


Smith
& Roberts
W.J. Gage & Company Limited (pages 290  294) 
APPENDIX

TABLES
OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES FOR REFERENCE

Avoirdupois
Weight


16 drams (dr)  = 1 ounce  or 1 oz. 
16 ounces  = 1 pound  or 1 lb. 
100 pounds  = 1 hundredweight, 1 cental  or 1 cwt 
20 hundredweight  = 1 ton  or 1 T. 
Note.
 In Great Britain 112 lbs. make a hundredweight, and 2240 lbs. make a
ton, called the long ton.

Fluid
Measure  Medicine

60
drops = 1 dram

8
drams = 1 fluid ounce

20
ounces = 1 pint

8
pints = 1 gallon

1
dram = 1 teaspoonful

2
drams = 1 dessertspoonful

4
drams = 1 tablespoonful

Long
Measure


12 inches (in.)  = 1 foot  or 1 ft. 
3 feet  = 1 yard  or 1 yd. 
50 yards *  = 1 rod  or 1 rd. 
40 rods  = 1 furlong  or 1 fur. 
8 furlongs  = 1 mile  or 1 mi. 
1
mi. = 320 rd. = 1760 yd. = 5280 ft. = 80 chains


Note.  Gunter's chain is used in measuring land. It is 22 yards in length, and is divided into 100 links, each link being 7.92 inches long.  
Note.   6 feet.........  1 fathom 
120 fathoms...  1 cable length  
880 fathoms....  1 mile  
Note.
 The hand (the breadth of the hand and thumb) used in measuring the height
of horses at the shoulder is 4 inches. 

* 50 was crossed out and 5 1/2 was written in in pencil. 
Surface
Measure


144 square inches (sq. in.)  = square foot  or 1 sq. ft. 
9 square feet  = square yard  or 1 sq. yd. 
300** square yards  = 1 square rod  or 1 sq. rd. 
160 square rods  = 1 acre  or 1 A. 
640
acres

= 1
square mile

or
1 sq. mi.

Note.
 10,000 sqaure links = 1 square chain
10 square chains = 4840 sq. yds. = 1 acre 

160
A. = a quartersection land

640
A. = a whole section land or 1 sq. mi.


320
A. = a halfsection land


36
sections = 1 township (tp.)


** 300 is crossed out and 30 1/4 is written in in pencil. 
Cubic,
or Solid Measure


1728 cubic inches (cu. in.)  = 1 cubic foot  or 1 cu. ft. 
27 cubic feet  = 1 cubic yard  or 1 cu. yd. 
128 cubic feet  = 1 cord  or 1 cd. 
Measure
of Capacity


2 pints (pt.)  = 1 quart  or 1 qt.  
4 quarts  = 1 gallon  or 1 gal.  
2 gallons  = 1 peck  or 1 pk.  
4 pecks  = 1 bushel  or 1 bu.  
pencilled in 32 qts = 1 Bushel  
1
cu. ft. of water weighs 1000 oz. and contains 6 1/4 gal.


The following table shows the weight of a bushel of the article named:  
Lime  80 lbs.  Rye 
56 lbs. 
Bituminous coal  70 lbs  Flax seed 
56 lbs. 
Beans  60 lbs.  Onions  50 lbs. 
Clover seed  60 lbs.  Barley 
48 lbs. 
Peas  60 lbs.  Buckwheat  48 lbs. 
Potatoes  60 lbs.  Timothy seed  48 lbs. 
Turnips  60 lbs.  Hemp seed  44 lbs. 
Carrots  60 lbs.  Castor beans  40 lbs. 
Parsnips  60 lbs.  Malt  36 lbs. 
Beets  60 lbs.  Oats  34 lbs. 
Wheat  60 lbs.  Blue grass seed 
14 lbs. 
Indian corn  56 lbs. 
Measure
of Time


60 seconds (sec.)  = 1 minute  or 1 min. 
60 minutes  = 1 hour  or 1 hr. 
24 hours  = 1 day  or 1 da. 
7 days  = 1 week  or 1 wk. 
12 calendar months or 365 days  = 1 year  or 1 yr. 
366 days  = 1 leap year 
Circular
or Angular Measure


60 seconds ( " )  = 1 minute or 1 ' 
60 minutes  = 1 degree or 1 ° 
360 degrees  = 1 circumference or 1 C 
English
or Sterling Money


4 farthings  = 1 penny  or 1d. 
12 pence  = 1 shilling  or 1s. 
20 shillings  = 1 pound  or £1 
20 hundredweight  = 1 ton  or 1 T. 
Note.
 £1 sterling = $4.86 2/3, and 1s. = 24 1/3 cents.
1 guinea = 21 shillings 
Miscellaneous
Table


12 units  = 1 dozen  or 1 doz. 
12 dozen  = 1 gross  or 1 gro. 
12 gross  = 1 great gross  
20 units  = 1 score  or 1 sco. 
24 sheets  = 1 quire  or 1 qr. 
20 quires  = 1 ream  or 1 rm. 
196 lbs. flour  = 1 barrel  or 1 bbl. 
200 lbs. porl  = 1 barrel 
or 1 bbl. 
Freezing point of water, on Fahrenheit scale, 32° above zero.  
Boiling point of water, under a pressure of 760 mm., 212°F.  
A board foot is 12 in. x 12 in. x 1 in.  
A bunch of shingles contains 250. A thousand shingles are reckoned to cover 100 sq. ft.  
Light travels at the rate of 186,000 mi. a second.  
Sound travels in the air at the rate of 11 ft. a second  
An imperial gallon contains 277.274 cu.in.  
The wine gallon contains 231 cu. in. 6 wine gallons = 5 standard gallons.  
A bushel contains 8 imperial gallons.  
The long ton is used in the United States custom houses and in wholesale transactions in iron and coal.  
Atmospheric pressure. At the level of the sea the pressure of the atmosphere is about 14.7 lbs. per square inch.  
The barometer. The column of mercury falls about an inch for each 1000 ft. of ascent.  
A brick is 8 in. long, 4 in. wide, and 2 in. thick. About 22 bricks and the mortar will fill 1 cu. ft.  
A lath is 4 ft. long and 1 1/2 in. wide. They are usually left 3/8 in. apart when nailed. There are 50 laths in a bunch. A bunch will cover 3 sq. yd. of surface.  
Wall paper in America is 18 in. wide and is put up in double rolls 16 yds. long. English wall paper is usually 21 in. wide. 